Questions About Web Crawlers, Robots, Spiders
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This information is in the public domain.
- About WWW robots
- Indexing robots
- For Server Administrators
- Robots exclusion standard
About Web Robots
A robot is a program that automatically traverses the Web’s hypertext structure by retrieving a document, and recursively retrieving all documents that are referenced.
Note that “recursive” here doesn’t limit the definition to any specific traversal algorithm; even if a robot applies some heuristic to the selection and order of documents to visit and spaces out requests over a long space of time, it is still a robot.
Normal Web browsers are not robots, because they are operated by a human, and don’t automatically retrieve referenced documents (other than inline images).
Web robots are sometimes referred to as Web Wanderers, Web Crawlers, or Spiders. These names are a bit misleading as they give the impression the software itself moves between sites like a virus; this not the case, a robot simply visits sites by requesting documents from them.
The word “agent” is used for lots of meanings in computing these days. Specifically:
Autonomous agents – are programs that do travel between sites, deciding themselves when to move and what to do. These can only travel between special servers and are currently not widespread in the Internet.
Intelligent agents – are programs that help users with things, such as choosing a product, or guiding a user through form filling, or even helping users find things. These have generally little to do with networking.
User-agent – is a technical name for programs that perform networking tasks for a user, such as Web User-agents like Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, and Email User-agent like Qualcomm Eudora etc.
A search engine is a program that searches through some data set. In the context of the Web, the word “search engine” is most often used for search forms that search through databases of HTML documents gathered by a robot.
Robots can be used for a number of purposes:
- HTML validation
- Link validation
- “What’s New” monitoring
They’re all names for the same sort of thing, with slightly different connotations:
Robots – the generic name, see above.
Spiders – same as robots, but sounds cooler in the press.
Worms – same as robots, although technically a worm is a replicating program, unlike a robot.
Web crawlers – same as robots, but note WebCrawler is a specific robot
WebAnts – distributed cooperating robots.
There are a few reasons people believe robots are bad for the Web:
- Certain robot implementations can (and have in the past) overloaded networks and servers. This happens especially with people who are just starting to write a robot; these days there is sufficient information on robots to prevent some of these mistakes.
- Robots are operated by humans, who make mistakes in configuration, or simply don’t consider the implications of their actions. This means people need to be careful, and robot authors need to make it difficult for people to make mistakes with bad effects
- Web-wide indexing robots build a central database of documents, which doesn’t scale too well to millions of documents on millions of sites.
But at the same time the majority of robots are well designed, professionally operated, cause no problems, and provide a valuable service in the absence of widely deployed better solutions. So no, robots aren’t inherently bad, nor inherently brilliant, and need careful attention.
Yes. Disclosure of interest: buying through the following links may result in the book seller paying a small referral fee that helps maintain this site. The books are listed alphabetically.
Bots and Other Internet Beasties by Joseph Williams
I haven’t seen this myself, but someone said:
The William’s book ‘Bots and other Internet Beasties’ was quite disappointing. It claims to be a ‘how to’ book on writing robots, but my impression is that it is nothing more than a collection of chapters, written by various people involved in this area and subsequently bound together.
Published by Pearson Education, 1996. ISBN 1575210169.
Client Programming with Perl by Clinton Wong
This book is now out of print, but is freely available through the O’Reilly Open Books Project. Published by O’Reilly, 1997.
Internet Agents: Spiders, Wanderers, Brokers, and Bots by Fah-Chun Cheong.
I believe this book is out of print. This books covers Web robots, commerce transaction agents, Mud agents, and a few others. It includes source code for a simple Web robot based on top of libwww-perl4.
Its coverage of HTTP, HTML, and Web libraries is a bit too thin to be a “how to write a web robot” book, but it provides useful background reading and a good overview of the state-of-the-art, especially if you haven’t got the time to find all the info yourself on the Web. Published by New Riders, 1995. ISBN 1-56205-463-5.
Perl & LWP by Sean M. Burke.
An O’Reilly book that thoroughly explains how to use LWP, the standard web library for Perl. It has a chapter on spiders. Recommended.
Disclosure of interest: the author sent me a copy for review, and I’m a co-author of LWP. Published by O’Reilly, 2002. ISBN 0596001789
Spidering Hacks by Kevin Hemenway, Tara Calishain.
I’ve not seen this myself. It discusses spiders, LWP, robots.txt. Published by O’Reilly, 2003. ISBN: 0596005776
There is a Web robots home page on:
Of course the latest version of this FAQ is there. You’ll also find details and an archive of the robots mailing list, which is intended for technical discussions about robots.
This depends on the robot, each one uses different strategies. In general they start from a historical list of URLs, especially of documents with many links elsewhere, such as server lists, “What’s New” pages, and the most popular sites on the Web.
Most indexing services also allow you to submit URLs manually, which will then be queued and visited by the robot.
Sometimes other sources for URLs are used, such as scanners through USENET postings, published mailing list achives etc.
Given those starting points a robot can select URLs to visit and index, and to parse and use as a source for new URLs.
If an indexing robot knows about a document, it may decide to parse it, and insert it into its database. How this is done depends on the robot: Some robots index the HTML
Titles, or the first few paragraphs, or parse the entire HTML and index all words, with weightings depending on HTML constructs, etc. Some parse the META tag, or other special
We hope that as the Web evolves more facilities becomes available to efficiently associate meta data such as indexing information with a document. This is being worked on…
You guessed it, it depends on the service 🙂 Many services have a link to a URL submission form on their search page, or have more information in their help pages. For example, Google has Information for Webmasters.
For Server Administrators
You can check your server logs for sites that retrieve many documents, especially in a short time. If your server supports User-agent logging you can check for retrievals with unusual User-agent header values.
Finally, if you notice a site repeatedly checking for the file /robots.txt chances are that is a robot too.
Well, nothing 🙂 The whole idea is they are automatic; you don’t need to do anything.
If you think you have discovered a new robot (ie one that is not listed on the list of active robots, and it does more than sporadic visits, drop me a line so I can make a note of it for future reference. But please don’t tell me about every robot that happens to drop by!
This is called “rapid-fire”, and people usually notice it if they’re monitoring or analysing an access log file.
First of all check if it is a problem by checking the load of your server, and monitoring your servers’ error log, and concurrent connections if you can. If you have a medium or high performance server, it is quite likely to be able to cope a high load of even several requests per second, especially if the visits are quick.
However you may have problems if you have a low performance site, such as your own desktop PC or Mac you’re working on, or you run low performance server software, or if you have many long retrievals (such as CGI scripts or large documents). These problems manifest themselves in refused connections, a high load, performance slowdowns, or in extreme cases a system crash.
If this happens, there are a few things you should do. Most importantly, start logging information: when did you notice, what happened, what do your logs say, what are you doing in response etc; this helps investigating the problem later. Secondly, try and find out where the robot came from, what IP addresses or DNS domains, and see if they are mentioned in the list of active robots. If you can identify a site this way, you can email the person responsible, and ask them what’s up. If this doesn’t help, try their own site for telephone numbers, or mail postmaster at their domain.
If the robot is not on the list, mail me with all the information you have collected, including actions on your part. If I can’t help, at least I can make a note of it for others.
Robots exclusion standard
If you don’t care about robots and want to prevent the messages in your error logs, simply create an empty file called robots.txt in the root level of your server.
Don’t put any HTML or English language “Who the hell are you?” text in it — it will probably never get read by anyone 🙂
The quick way to prevent robots visiting your site is put these two lines into the /robots.txt file on your server:
User-agent: * Disallow: /
but its easy to be more selective than that.
You can read the whole standard specification but the basic concept is simple: by writing a structured text file you can indicate to robots that certain parts of your server are off-limits to some or all robots. It is best explained with an example:
# /robots.txt file for http://webcrawler.com/ # mail firstname.lastname@example.org for constructive criticism User-agent: webcrawler Disallow: User-agent: lycra Disallow: / User-agent: * Disallow: /tmp Disallow: /logs
The first two lines, starting with ‘#’, specify a comment
The first paragraph specifies that the robot called ‘webcrawler’ has nothing disallowed: it may go anywhere.
The second paragraph indicates that the robot called ‘lycra’ has all relative URLs starting with ‘/’ disallowed. Because all relative URL’s on a server start with ‘/’, this means the entire site is closed off.
The third paragraph indicates that all other robots should not visit URLs starting with /tmp or /log. Note the ‘*’ is a special token, meaning “any other User-agent”; you cannot use wildcard patterns or regular expressions in either User-agent or Disallow lines.
Two common errors:
- Wildcards are _not_ supported: instead of ‘Disallow: /tmp/*’ just say ‘Disallow: /tmp/’.
- You shouldn’t put more than one path on a Disallow line (this may change in a future version of the spec)
Probably… there are some ideas floating around. They haven’t made it into a coherent proposal because of time constraints, and because there is little pressure. Mail suggestions to the robots mailing list, and check the robots home page for work in progress.
Sometimes you cannot make a /robots.txt file, because you don’t administer the entire server. All is not lost: there is a new standard for using HTML META tags to keep robots out of your documents.
The basic idea is that if you include a tag like:
<META NAME="ROBOTS" CONTENT="NOINDEX">
in your HTML document, that document won’t be indexed.
If you do:
<META NAME="ROBOTS" CONTENT="NOFOLLOW">
the links in that document will not be parsed by the robot.
Some people are concerned that listing pages or directories in the robots.txt file may invite unintended access. There are two answers to this.
The first answer is a workaround: You could put all the files you don’t want robots to visit in a separate sub directory, make that directory UN-listable on the web (by configuring your server), then place your files in there, and list only the directory name in the robots.txt. Now an ill-willed robot can’t traverse that directory unless you or someone else puts a direct link on the web to one of your files, and then it’s not /robots.txt fault.
For example, rather than:
User-Agent: * Disallow: /foo.html Disallow: /bar.html
User-Agent: * Disallow: /norobots/
and make a “norobots” directory, put foo.html and bar.html into it, and configure your server to not generate a directory listing for that directory. Now all an attacker would learn is that you have a “norobots” directory, but he won’t be able to list the files in there; he’d need to guess their names.
However, in practice this is a bad idea — it’s too fragile. Someone may publish a link to your files on their site. Or it may turn up in a publicly accessible log file, say of you user’s proxy server, or maybe it will show up in someone’s web server log as a Referer. Or someone may miss-configure your server at some future date, “fixing” it to show a directory listing. Which leads me to the real answer:
The real answer is that /robots.txt is not intended for access control, so don’t try to use it as such. Think of it as a “No Entry” sign, not a locked door. If you have files on your web site that you don’t want unauthorized people to access, then configure your server to do authentication, and configure appropriate authorization. Basic Authentication has been around since the early days of the web (and in e.g. Apache on UNIX is trivial to configure), and if you’re really serious, SSL is commonplace in web servers.
Well, you can have a look at the list of robots; I’m starting to indicate their public availability slowly.
In the meantime, two indexing robots that you should be able to get hold of are Harvest (free), and Verity’s.
See above — some may be willing to give out source code. Alternatively check out the libwww-perl5 package, that has a simple example.
Lots. First read through all the stuff on the robot page then read the proceedings of past WWW Conferences, and the
complete HTTP and HTML spec. Yes; it’s a lot of work 🙂
Simply fill in a form you can find on The Web Robots Database and email it to me.